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Another way your data can fool you is when you don't reject the null hypothesis, even though it's not true. If the true proportion of female chicks is 51%, the null hypothesis of a 50% proportion is not true, but you're unlikely to get a significant difference from the null hypothesis unless you have a huge sample size. Failing to reject the null hypothesis, even though it's not true, is a "false negative" or "Type II error." This is why we never say that our data shows the null hypothesis to be true; all we can say is that we haven't rejected the null hypothesis.

Approximately13,000 years ago, the Laurentide Ice Sheet’s retreat was interrupted by a return to glacial climatic conditions that persisted for over 1,000 years. The events precipitating the dramatic, millennial long climatic cooling, known as the Younger Dryas, remain both a mystery and the subject of debate. It has recently been hypothesized that a fragmented comet or asteroid might have simultaneously initiated the YD and formed the Carolina Bays. However, Carbon 14 dating and pollen analysis indicates an earlier genesis. While this research does indicate the bays were formed during prior glacial epochs, the bays also appear to be repositories of a significant amount of materiel considered evidence of an extraterrestrial impact including carbon and magnetic spherules and nanodiamonds.

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The ANOVA calculations formultiple regression are nearly identical to the calculations for simple linear regression, except that the degrees of freedom are adjusted to reflect the number of explanatory variables included in the model.

where *µ* = group mean and *k* = number of groups. If, however, the one-way ANOVA returns a statistically significant result, we accept the alternative hypothesis (H_{A}), which is that there are at least two group means that are statistically significantly different from each other.

In the third experiment, you are going to put magnetic hats on guinea pigs and see if their blood pressure goes down (relative to guinea pigs wearing the kind of non-magnetic hats that guinea pigs usually wear). This is a really goofy experiment, and you know that it is very unlikely that the magnets will have any effect (it's not impossible—magnets affect the sense of direction of homing pigeons, and maybe guinea pigs have something similar in their brains and maybe it will somehow affect their blood pressure—it just seems really unlikely). You might analyze your results using Bayesian statistics, which will require specifying in numerical terms just how unlikely you think it is that the magnetic hats will work. Or you might use frequentist statistics, but require a *P* value much, much lower than 0.05 to convince yourself that the effect is real.

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Here are three experiments to illustrate when the different approaches to statistics are appropriate. In the first experiment, you are testing a plant extract on rabbits to see if it will lower their blood pressure. You already know that the plant extract is a diuretic (makes the rabbits pee more) and you already know that diuretics tend to lower blood pressure, so you think there's a good chance it will work. If it does work, you'll do more low-cost animal tests on it before you do expensive, potentially risky human trials. Your prior expectation is that the null hypothesis (that the plant extract has no effect) has a good chance of being false, and the cost of a false positive is fairly low. So you should do frequentist hypothesis testing, with a significance level of 0.05.

A Bayesian would insist that you put in numbers just how likely you think the null hypothesis and various values of the alternative hypothesis are, before you do the experiment, and I'm not sure how that is supposed to work in practice for most experimental biology. But the general concept is a valuable one: as Carl Sagan summarized it, "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence."

Now instead of testing 1000 plant extracts, imagine that you are testing just one. If you are testing it to see if it kills beetle larvae, you know (based on everything you know about plant and beetle biology) there's a pretty good chance it will work, so you can be pretty sure that a *P* value less than 0.05 is a true positive. But if you are testing that one plant extract to see if it grows hair, which you know is very unlikely (based on everything you know about plants and hair), a *P* value less than 0.05 is almost certainly a false positive. In other words, *if you expect that the null hypothesis is probably true, a statistically significant result is probably a false positive.* This is sad; the most exciting, amazing, unexpected results in your experiments are probably just your data trying to make you jump to ridiculous conclusions. You should require a much lower *P* value to reject a null hypothesis that you think is probably true.

Now imagine that you are testing those extracts from 1000 different tropical plants to try to find one that will make hair grow. The reality (which you don't know) is that one of the extracts makes hair grow, and the other 999 don't. You do the 1000 experiments and do the 1000 frequentist statistical tests, and you use the traditional significance level of *P**P**P**P* values less than 0.05, but almost all of them are false positives.

Having said that, there's one key concept from Bayesian statistics that is important for all users of statistics to understand. To illustrate it, imagine that you are testing extracts from 1000 different tropical plants, trying to find something that will kill beetle larvae. The reality (which you don't know) is that 500 of the extracts kill beetle larvae, and 500 don't. You do the 1000 experiments and do the 1000 frequentist statistical tests, and you use the traditional significance level of *P**P**P**P* value, after all), so you have 25 false positives. So you end up with 525 plant extracts that gave you a *P* value less than 0.05. You'll have to do further experiments to figure out which are the 25 false positives and which are the 500 true positives, but that's not so bad, since you know that most of them will turn out to be true positives.

I'll confess that I don't really understand Bayesian statistics, and I apologize for not explaining it well. In particular, I don't understand how people are supposed to come up with a prior distribution for the kinds of experiments that most biologists do. With the exception of systematics, where Bayesian estimation of phylogenies is quite popular and seems to make sense, I haven't seen many research biologists using Bayesian statistics for routine data analysis of simple laboratory experiments. This means that even if the cult-like adherents of Bayesian statistics convinced you that they were right, you would have a difficult time explaining your results to your biologist peers. Statistics is a method of conveying information, and if you're speaking a different language than the people you're talking to, you won't convey much information. So I'll stick with traditional frequentist statistics for this handbook.

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