Allergic reactions to cosmetics containing formaldehyde as a pre-servative, especially shampoos, are unusual (Eckardt, 1966) and appearmostly among those who have been sensitized by occupational exposure.
184.108.40.206 Systemic sensitization A case report has been described involving an anaphylactic shockreaction after accidental iv application of formaldehyde duringhaemodialysis treatment due to formaldehyde remaining in the equipmentafter disinfection.
These react with OH radicals and ozone toform formaldehyde and/or other aldehydes as intermediates in a seriesof reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of carbon monoxideand dioxide, hydrogen, and water (Zimmermann et al., 1978; Calvert,1980).
Formaldehyde is an inexpensive starting material for a number ofchemical reactions, and a large number of products are made using for-maldehyde as a base.
220.127.116.11 Aminoplastics (urea formaldehyde resins and melamine formalde- hyde resins) Reaction of formaldehyde with urea or melamine yields urea formal-dehyde (UF) or melamine formaldehyde (MF) (condensation process).
In the exposure chamber, a bis-chloromethyl-ether (BCME) concentration of 0.5-2 µg/m3, due to the chemicalreaction of formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride, was estimated.
Formaldehyde protects dietary-protein frommicrobial proteolysis in the rumen by reacting with free amino groupsin the protein, forming inter- and intramolecular methylene bridges(Siddons et al., 1982).
Formaldehyde also reacts with proteins (French & Edsall, 1945) andnucleic acids (Haselkorn & Doty, 1961; Lewin, 1966; Collins & Guild,1968; Feldman, 1973; Chaw et al., 1980); it reacts with single-strandDNA, but not with double-stranded DNA.
8.7.1 Reactions with macromolecules Formaldehyde reacts readily with a variety of cellular nucleo-philes, including glutathione, forming adducts of varying stability(Feldman, 1973; Uotila & Koivusalo, 1974; McGhee & von Hippel, 1975).
4.2.1 Special products of degradation under specific conditions Highly carcinogenic bis(chloromethyl)ether can be produced by acondensation reaction between formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride(Thiess et al., 1973; Nelson, 1977; Albert et al., 1982; Sellakumar etal., 1985).
It has been shown that sensory irritation is the earliest humanreaction to formaldehyde, both in exposure studies and from complaintsabout indoor environments.
Since differences in indi-vidual reactions to formaldehyde are large in both the normal popu-lation and in hyperreactive and sensitized persons, it is difficult toestimate a concentration guaranteed not to produce negative reactionsin the general population.
Formaldehyde reacts withsulfur dioxide (SO2) and gives off relatively concentrated hydroxy-methanesulfonic acid, whereby SO2 may contribute to the acid contentof precipitation without preceding oxidation to sulfuric acid, which isa relatively slow process.
There is no evidence in the literature of allergic reactivity ofthe mucous membranes of the eyes being caused by airborne formaldehydeor by formaldehyde solutions.
HCHO + h v -> H2 + CO (9) -> H + HCO (10) Formaldehyde is also removed from the troposphere by reaction withthe OH radical (Stief et al., 1980).