We wanted to see it happen! What we did was use syringes to create a vacuum that forced the gases out of spinach leaves. This made them sink instead of float like they normally do. We then put them in a solution of baking soda and water and used lamps as a source of light energy, like the sun. The baking soda provides carbon dioxide. Plants need light energy, carbon dioxide, and water to make glucose (food). As plants do photosynthesis, they bring carbon dioxide gas into their cells and they release oxygen gas. This gas production makes them float again. So as they move from sinking to floating, you can literally watch them do photosynthesis!
In this lab, students are looking at photosynthesis, which is the process plants use to create their own food. This is often considered the most important chemical reaction on the planet, because plants are the base of the food chain; even carnivores couldn’t survive without plants because they eat animals that ate plants. However, photosynthesis is a really complex reaction that takes place in multiple steps, and it is something that you can’t usually see happen.
From here select "Online Labs" from the menu list on the left of the screen. Then select: "Virtual Lab 5 - How Do Proteins Help Chlorophyll Carry Out Photosynthesis?"
In Photosynthesis, photons of light are absorbed by chlorophyll molecules, causing them to donate a high-energy electron that is put to work making NADPH and pumping protons to produce ATP. In this section of the lab you will examine recent evidence that proteins embedded in the thylakoid membranes within the chloroplasts of photosynthetic organisms are acting as an antenna to facilitate light capture.
We have updated the Lizard Evolution Virtual Lab based on feedback from field testers (over 50 classrooms!).
The virtual lab includes four modules that investigate different concepts in evolutionary biology, including adaptation, convergent evolution, phylogenetic analysis, reproductive isolation, and speciation. Each module involves data collection, calculations, analysis and answering questions. The “Educators” tab includes lists of key concepts and learning objectives and detailed suggestions for incorporating the lab in your instruction.
Updates to the virtual lab include:
In this weeks lectures we explored the relationships between living things and energy transfer. In this lab we will more specifically consider the relationships between energy and mass transfer in photosynthetic carbon gain. For the next part of this lab we will utilize the ExPASy (Expert Protein Analysis System) proteomics server of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB). Go to the and search for "Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase". From the description answer the following questions:
Use a carbon dioxide gas sensor to understand the comparative concentrations of CO2 gas for a small plant in darkness and in bright light and what this says about photosynthesis and the CO2 cycle.
Making an aquarium or a terrarium is not a complicated thing. Learning to build them isvery useful for those who are fond of breeding animals, observing them, taking picturesand movies. You can use an aquarium to breed fish, amphibians, protists, algae, artemia,shrimps, etc. You can use a terrarium to breed many species of animals, but avoid raisingspecies which suffer in captivity. Aquaria and terrariums can be used also to take picturesof animals temporarily taken from their environment.
In their simpler form, acquaria and terrariums are simple glass boxes enclosed on 5 sidesand which can be provided with a lid. This simple container is suitable to breedamphibians and as a terrarium. Aquaria for fish require a compartment for a filter, a pumpfor water circulation, another pump for air, a thermostat, lighting, etc. We'll deal ofthe simplest aquaria.
How you can build an aquarium? In first you have to make a drawing. The bottom glass hasto be surrounded by the other four walls and it has to be the thickest. The thickness ofthe plates has to be proportioned to the size of the aquarium. Avoid building too wide,and more importantly, too high an aquarium. The pressure of the water increases and couldunglue the plates. After having drawn the acquarium you have to cut the glass plates bymeans of a glasscutter. To do this keep the glasscutter vertical and push down with forcewhile you move it along a ruler. This operation require practice, so use some scrap piecesuntil you have the necessary manual ability. It is important you use a sharp glasscutter,kept in oil to avoid rust. Before gluing the slabs, you have to round off the edges withsandpaper in order to remove their sharp edges. With some acetone, clean the slabs wherethe silicone rubber will be deposited. As the acetone is toxic, work outdoor or in a wellventilate piece. Use high quality transparent silicone. To keep the internal walls free ofexcessive glue, on the slabs and near the gluing positions, place stripes of sticking tape(figure 6). When the silicone is cured, remove these stripes and the excess glue.
: handling and cutting glass is a dangerousoperation which has to be made only by adult people wearing gloves and a heavy apron. Away to elegantly solve this problem is to order plates. A hardware or building supplystore can help. Never move aquaria and terrariums containing water or stones, move them onlywhen they are empty. Do not place aquaria in positions where a water leak could damagesomething below them, for example over electrical devices or sockets, and books. Onlyadults should handle glass-made aquaria or terrariums. Give children transparent plastictanks. Do not keep dangerous or rare organisms. Do not breed and most important, do notfree species which do not belong to your environment! Do not free sick animals or plants.
Reef Aquarium Guide
CyberAqua (list of links)
Internet keywords: aquarium glass homemade.
Industrial societies manufacture huge quantities of goods. Once used, these products arecast away. Hence, on one hand we substract great amounts of resources from nature, on theother hand we make enormous heaps of garbage which pollute the environment. If you thinkof it, a lot of materials which are discarded could be reused. In fact, metals, plasticand glass can be used in manufacturing new items. Paper and fabric can be turned back intopulp and fibers, and reassembled into new products. Organic wastes of kitchen, usuallymade of vegetable and animal substances, and garden material, can be composted and used asfertilizer. Wood can be burned, yielding electrical energy, heat and carbon dioxide whichwill be used by other plants to produce more wood. Recycling of waste materials has thedouble advantage of reducing the need for raw materials, and the amount of rubbish.
Every day for a month, separate the different kinds of scrap of your home, weight them andwrite out a list. At the end, estimate the amount of materials which can be recycled,evaluate the recycling and waste management program of your community. Highlight theproblem areas of the system. Assess the problems created by not easily recyclable things,and by the polluting ones: paint cans, batteries, oils, detergents, medicines, etc. Bringout the difficulties and the questions facing particular problems in the recovery ofwastes. Ask the authorities of your city. Write a guide for families on how treat wastesin the right manner. Show this guide and the report of your research to your teacher.
Environmental Defense, Recycling
Recycling - At School
Recycling Obscure Materials
Global Recycling Network
The Internet Consumer Recycling Guide
Internet keywords: recycling.
An ecosystem consists of the whole community of living organisms (biocenosis), the abioticcomponent of a certain environment (biotope) and their relationships.
The relationships essentially consist in a flux of substances which pass from thenon-living components to living ones and in a flux of energy which passes from thephotosynthetic organisms (plants) to the herbivorous animals, then to carnivores. Thewastes and the dead organisms are then decomposed by the micro-organisms which brake downthe substances back to simple components, in a full cycle.
1 - With a shovel in a field or in a wood, dig a square hole of about half a meter (1 1/2feet) square and about 40 cm (18") deep. Describe the non-living components of thesoil and all forms of life you find: roots, earthworms, snails, centipedes, spiders,crickets, etc. To complete the description of the ecosystem of the soil, look forinformation on the role of each of these organisms and the relationships with the otherforms of life of this environment.
2 - In similar way you have studied the soil ecosystem, you can analyze other ecosystemssuch as the ones in a forest, pond, shore, or desert.
G. and L. Durrell (2) can be useful, or there are many other books on this matter.
An Illustration of a Soil Ecosystem
Protocols for a Soil Ecosystem Approach for Characterizing Soil Biodiversity
Internet keywords: soil ecosystem.